In the 19th century, the world was Europeanized. In the 20th century, it was Americanized. Now, it is being Asianized – and much faster than you may think.
Asia’s rise has been swift. Home to more than half of the world’s population, the region has climbed from low- to middle-income status within a single generation. By 2040, it is likely to generate more than 50 percent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP), and could account for nearly 40 percent of global consumption.
New McKinsey Global Institute research shows the extent to which the global centre of gravity is shifting toward Asia. Today, the region has an increasing global share of trade, capital, people, knowledge, transport, culture, and resources. Of eight types of global cross-border flows, only waste is flowing in the opposite direction, reflecting the decision by China and other Asian countries to reduce imports of garbage from developed countries.
Asia now accounts for around one-third of global trade in goods, up from about a quarter 10 years ago. Over roughly the same period, its share of global airline travellers has risen from 33 percent to 40 percent, and its share of capital flows has increased from 13 percent to 23 percent.
Those flows have fuelled growth in Asia’s cities. The region is home to 21 of the world’s 30 largest, and four of the 10 most visited. And some of Asia’s lesser-known cities are now also on investors’ radar. In Yangon, Myanmar’s commercial capital, greenfield foreign direct investment (FDI) in knowledge-intensive sectors totalled US$2.6 billion in 2017, up from virtually zero in 2007.
Similarly, Bekasi, a smaller city near Jakarta, has emerged as the Detroit of Indonesia – the centre of Indonesia’s automotive and motorcycle industry. Over the last decade, FDI in the city’s manufacturing industry has grown at an average rate of 29 percent per year. And Hyderabad – which generated over 1,400 patents in 2017 – is quickly catching up with India’s Silicon Valley, Bangalore.
But it’s not only external flows being channelled into Asia. Dynamic intraregional networks are also driving progress. Around 60 percent of Asian countries’ total trade in goods occurs within the region, facilitated by increasingly integrated Asian supply chains. Intraregional funding and investment flows are also increasing, with more than 70 percent of Asian start-up funding coming from within the region. Flows of people – 74 percent of travel within Asia is undertaken by Asians – help to integrate the region as well.
What makes these flows work is Asia’s diversity. In fact, there are at least four “Asias,” each at a different stage of economic development, playing a unique role in the region’s global rise.
The first Asia comprises China, the region’s anchor economy, which provides a connectivity and innovation platform to its neighbours. In 2013-17, the country accounted for 35 percent of Asia’s total outward FDI, with about one-quarter of that investment going to other Asian economies. Reflecting its rapidly growing innovation capacity, China accounted for 44 percent of the world’s patent applications in 2017.
The second grouping – “Advanced Asia” – also provides technology and capital. With total outward FDI of US$1 trillion, these countries accounted for 54 percent of total regional FDI outflows in 2013-17. South Korea alone provided 33 percent of all FDI flows to Vietnam. Japan accounted for 35 percent of Myanmar’s FDI inflows, and 17 percent of the Philippines’.
Then there is “Emerging Asia,” which comprises a relatively diverse group of small emerging economies that provide not only labour, but also growth potential, owing to rising productivity and consumption. These economies are deeply integrated with their regional neighbours: their average share of intraregional flows of goods, capital, and people is 79 percent, the highest of the four Asias.
By contrast, the fourth grouping – “Frontier Asia and India” – has the lowest average share of intraregional flows, amounting to just 31 percent. But this figure – which reflects historic ties to Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and the United States (US) – is set to increase, as these economies, which historically were less integrated, forge closer bonds with their Asian neighbours. This group has a lot to offer, including a relatively young labour force that is capitalizing on the growing Asian import market, and a growing middle class that can serve as a new market for regional exports.
The differences among the four Asias are complementary, making integration a powerful force for progress. For example, as one country’s labour force ages, a country with a younger population fills the gap. The median age of India’s population stood at 27 in 2015, compared to 37 in China and 48 in Japan and is expected to reach just 38 by 2050.
Likewise, when wages – and thus manufacturing costs – begin to rise in one country, an economy at an earlier stage of development takes over its low-cost manufacturing activities. From 2014 to 2017, when China’s share of all labour-intensive emerging-economy exports declined from 55 percent to 52 percent, Vietnam’s share increased by 2.2 percentage points and Cambodia’s by 0.4 percentage points.
For years, observers have breathlessly discussed Asia’s future potential. The future has arrived. We have entered the “Asian century,” as the author Parag Khanna puts it. There is no turning back.
Jonathan Woetzel is a McKinsey senior partner, a director of the McKinsey Global Institute, and co-author of No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends. Jeongmin Seong is a senior fellow at the McKinsey Global Institute in Shanghai.